The Ph.D. in CS program uses the School of Computer Science online application for admissions. Applications are due in December for admittance the following fall. Students cannot begin in the spring. For more on how to apply, visit our Doctoral Admissions page.

Computers can become obsolete quickly, depending on what programs the user runs. Very often, they are thrown away within two or three years, because some newer programs require a more powerful computer. This makes the problem worse, so computer recycling happens a lot. Many projects try to send working computers to developing nations so they can be re-used and will not become waste as quickly, as most people do not need to run new programs. Some computer parts, such as hard drives, can break easily. When these parts end up in the landfill, they can put poisonous chemicals like lead into the groundwater. Hard drives can also contain secret information like credit card numbers. If the hard drive is not erased before being thrown away, an identity thief can get the information from the hard drive, even if the drive doesn’t work, and use it to steal money from the previous owner’s bank account.

In the 1950s computers were built out of mostly vacuum tubes Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in the 1960s because they were smaller and cheaper. They also need less power and do not break down as much as vacuum tubes. In the 1970s, technologies were based on integrated circuits Microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004 made computers smaller, cheaper, faster and more reliable. By the 1980s, microcontrollers became small and cheap enough to replace mechanical controls in things like washing machines The 1980s also saw home computers and personal computers With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household.

Computer programs are designed or written by computer programmers A few programmers write programs in the computer’s own language called machine code Most programs are written using a programming language like C++, Java, and Fortran These programming languages are more like the language with which one talks and writes every day. The computer translates the user’s instructions into binary code (machine code) that the computer will understand and do what is needed.{smartphone|smartphone price in bd|smartphone flash tool|smartphone price|smart phone watch|smartphone 2017|smart phone pic|smartphone png|smart phone ringtone|smartphone brand}

The OSSU curriculum is a complete education in computer science using online materials. It’s not merely for career training or professional development. It’s for those who want a proper, well-rounded grounding in concepts fundamental to all computing disciplines, and for those who have the discipline, will, and (most importantly!) good habits to obtain this education largely on their own, but with support from a worldwide community of fellow learners.

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